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Material Calculator - Thermal Expansion

Calculator for the expansion of length, area and volume at temperature changes. Isotrop solid bodies, these are bodies consistently made of one material, change their size linearly in a temperature span when heated or cooled down. This is for many materials like those listed here, but not for all. The calculation assumes that the bodies still are solid after the temperature changes.
Please select the material or enter the coefficient of linear thermal expansion. Then, enter at the calculator of your choice two of the four values, the other two will be calculated. If the exact coefficient of linear thermal expansion is known, this should be entered.

Material:
Coefficient of linear thermal expansion α: * 10-6/K at 20° C

Thermal Expansion

Per degree Celsius or Kelvin, a one kilometer long body changes its size for the value given at α in millimeters. The three lengths of the calculator have the same units, regardless of which. Here you can convert units of length.
The formula is Δl = l1 * α * Δϑ and l2 = l1 + Δl

Length before l1:
Temperature change Δϑ: K, °C
Length after l2:
Length difference Δl:

Example: a 200 meters long concrete bridge is getting almost 5 centimeters shorter, if it is getting 20 degrees Celsius colder (temperature change -20 K). It then has a length of 199.952 meters.


Area Expansion

The coefficient of area thermal expansion β is calculated as 2α, so the area expansion is twice the length expansion. The three areas of the calculator have the same units, regardless of which. Here you can convert units of area.

Area before:
Temperature change: K, °C
Area after:
Area difference:

Example: an iron sheet of 12 square meters, which is warmed for 18 degrees Celsius, will increase its size for 0.005 square meters or 50 square centimeters.


Volume Expansion

The coefficient of volume thermal expansion γ is calculated as 3α, so the volume expansion is three times the length expansion. The three volumes of the calculator have the same units, regardless of which. Here you can convert units of volume.

Volume before:
Temperature change: K, °C
Volume after:
Volume difference:

Example: 50 liters of aluminium after a temperature change of 12 Kelvin has a volume of 50.04 liters.



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