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# Calculate the Chandrasekhar Limit

Calculator for the Chandrasekhar limit for white dwarfs from their structure. The Chandrasekhar limit specifies the theoretical upper limit for the mass of a white dwarf star. If the mass is larger, the star explodes as a supernova or suffers a gravitational collapse and becomes a neutron star or black hole. The value is given in solar masses and is calculated from a constant and the ratio of nucleons and protons of the white dwarf's matter. The more neutrons it contains, the smaller its Chandrasekhar limit, since gravitational collapse is prevented by the repulsion of protons and electrons, which prevents the electrons from falling into the nucleus. Neutrons have no such repulsion. The formula for the calculation is Mmax=1,45727*(2/η)² with η=A/Z as the ratio of nucleons to protons. Please specify η or the number of nucleons A and protons Z or an isotope and press the corresponding = to calculate the Chandrasekhar limit.
The isotopes available for selection are those that generally occur in nucleosynthesis in stars. For most isotopes and for all up to silicon 28, the value of η = 2, which gives the Chandrasekhar limit the value of the given constant. This only changes with white dwarfs, which represent the core of red giant stars, in which heavier elements are also formed, up to iron 56. With this isotope the end of the fusion chain has been reached, the core implodes at a mass of 1.2565 solar masses and the hull explodes as a supernova.
An existing white dwarf often has a core made of carbon and oxygen, both with the value η=2. If further mass is added to this, generally by another nearby star, the Chandrasekhar limit can be exceeded. Since carbon and oxygen can continue to fuse, no neutron star or black hole is formed here, the white dwarf explodes completely in a supernova 1a.

 Constant: η: A/Z: / Isotope: Helium 4Carbon 12Oxygen 16Neon 20Magnesium 24Silicon 28Phosphorus 31Sulfur 32Argon 40Calcium 40Titanium 48Chrome 52Iron 56 Mmax: M☉

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