# Photovoltaics - Temperature Coefficient and Power

Calculator for the temperature coefficient in photovoltaics, how the power changes with the temperature. The specification of the nominal power of photovoltaic modules applies at a module temperature of 25 degrees Celsius. At a higher temperature, the power decreases, at a lower temperature it increases. The temperature refers to that at the module, which is often higher than the ambient temperature because the cells are very dark and therefore absorb heat. On a hot summer day, the temperature of the module can be 70 degrees Celsius. The exact temperature coefficient can be found in the manufacturer's information; an approximate guide value is -0.4 percent. This means that for every degree warmer than 25 degrees Celsius, the performance drops by 0.4 percent.

The effective power indicates which power can ideally be achieved at the corresponding temperature. The temperature or the effective power can be calculated from the other three values.

Example: at a temperature on the photovoltaic modules of 60 °C and the set temperature coefficient, the effective power is 86 percent, at 6000 watts nominal power these are 5160 watts.

The formula for the calculation of the power at a given temperature is:

Effective power = nominal power - (temperature - 25) * temperature coefficient * nominal power

The above thermal image was taken from the photovoltaic module of my balcony power plant. The outside temperature was 26 degrees Celsius at the time of measurement on June 19, 2024 at 1:30 p.m. On the module in the sun, the temperature reached about 60 degrees. The module has a nominal output of 385 watts peak, due to the heat this drops to an effective output of 331 watts peak with the assumed temperature coefficient of -0.4. Since the sun shines at an angle on the module, the actual output is from 250 to 270 watts.

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