# Photovoltaics - Average Power

Calculator for the average power of a solar or photovoltaic system from the energy yield in a certain time. Photovoltaic systems generate energy in watt hours. They need time to do this. From these two values, the average power of this system can be calculated. A useful span for the time can be in minutes, hours and days. An interesting value is the power in a year; you can enter 365 or 366 days, depending on whether it is no leap year or it is. The system also has a nominal power in watts peak. If this is specified, the percentage factor is calculated from the average power and the nominal power; this is noticeably smaller than 100 percent. The theoretical ideal case for a year would be 50 percent, since it is only light for half the day and no electricity is generated at night. In practice, the value is a lot lower, since the sun does not always shine and angles and conditions are almost never ideal. Therefore, values for ⊘P/P_{n} of around 10 percent can be expected for a stationary system in Central Europe over a period of one year.

For nominal power and average power, watts (W) are preset, for energy kilowatt hours (kWh), and for time days (d). These units can be changed.

Examples from the yield data of my systems:

- The roof system has an average output of 652.21 watts for the year from mid-2023 to mid-2024, which is a leap year with 366 days. The ratio of average output to nominal output is 11.02 percent.

- The balcony power plant has an average output of 30.31 watts for the year from autumn 2022 to autumn 2023, which is not a leap year, i.e. has 365 days. The ratio of average output to nominal output is 7.87 percent.

To find out the number of days within a time span, see Number of Days Calculator.

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